Organic Farming is a system of cultivation towards agricultural production adopting various process and using natural input with the restricted use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides and other chemically prepared materials. Organic Farming helps maintaining harmony intact among different linkage such as soil micro-organism, plants, livestock and human being within the environment and in the contrary , all these components living within the periphery of nature keep a healthy equilibrium position with the surrounding environment. The method of organic farming is practiced with a aim not only to keep the soil fertility intact, ,also create a favorable condition for natural biological activities within the soil, and keep sustainability of ecosystem and heath of animal as well as of plant kingdom including human.
Ultimately Organic Farming in Agriculture can create a pollution free environment around us.
The principal methods of Organic Farming includes Crop rotation, Green manure and Compost , and related to use of organic matter derived from plant compost and animal manures to improve the humus content of the soil . Apart from this, application of Bio-fertilizers and Integrated Pest Management process too plays an important role in the process of organic farming. Organic residues and nutrients produce in the farm are again use in the field as a recycling process, encourage various sustainable activities within the soil.
Crop rotation means succeeding crops cultivated in a particular crop land belongs to different family than the previous one. Cultivation of same crop in the same plot year after year or for several years decreases the nutrient level in the soil, also helps in building up of some harmful disease pathogens as well as enhances the immense growth of insect pests population. On the contrary, when crop rotation with cultivating different type of crops is maintained , it helps soil to maintain nutrient harmony in soil. As for example ,an insect pest most harmful to rice crop is normally may not be harmful to other crops like legume crops. On the other hand rhizobium, a microorganism present within the root nodules of legume crops such as lentil etc have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen, ultimately increases the nutrient status of that particular soil and therefore inclusion of legume crops in crop rotation has an positive effects on soil and environment . Crop rotation includes cultivation of verities of crop having various structure of root system which can absorb nutrient from different strata of soil leading to maintenance of homogeneity of soil nutrient in soil.
Green Manure can be obtained by two ways -firstly by growing green manure crop more specifically of leguminous crop such as dhaincha, cowpea, pegion pea, azolla ,sunhemp , mustard, soybean etc. These crops are grown in a plot and subsequently incorporating into the soil at the time when plants attain sufficient growth or shortly after flowering. Green manure crops are very rich in nitrogenous nutrient. Also control weeds of the plantation. Green manure improves soil structure, increase water holding capacity of soil and gives safeguard to soil from erosion. Secondly Green leaves and twigs which can be termed as green leaf manure, collected from plant such as neem, mahua gulmohar, water hyacinth also serve as a primary source of nutrient under organic farming system.
Inegrated Pest Control (IPM ) is the economic control method of insect pest and involve in keeping insect pest population under the economic injury level. Thus a careful consideration to integrate all possible and available measures to be taken against pest problem so as to keep the pest population with a aim to lower or minimize the risk of health of human being and environment as well.
Vermicompost is the process of composting ,using various species of earthworm to create a homogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste etc. It enriches soil with microorganism and attracts deep burrowing earthworm already present in the soil, improve plant growth, and also improve root growth and structure.
Bio fertilizer Constituent of bio fertilizers is living organism and when applied to seeds, plants or to soils bio fertilizers enhance plant growth by providing primary nutrients to plants. Bio fertilizers involve in the natural process which reduces the use of chemical fertilizers, hence microorganism in bio fertilizers keep the soil in natural condition. Among the important Bio-fertilizers, Rhizobium is used for Liguminous crops, Azotobacter for wheat,Maize, Mustard,Cotton,Potato and other vegetable crops, Azospirillum recommended for Maize,Sugarcane,Wheat and Blue Green Algae can fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used for paddy for both under upland as well as low land paddy condition.