Seed with special reference to agricultural crops with a few exceptions, where plant parts are treated as planting materials, may be termed as mother of entire plant kingdom. Since time immemorial, agricultural crops were cultivated using seed of indigenous varieties. But as time passes out, increase in world population demands for a higher rate of productivity and production from a particular plot of crop land. Considering upon these factors agricultural scientists has been evolving High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of paddy, along other crops.
HYV of paddy with a character having short life cycle, facilitate for inclusion in the multiple cropping system. Seeds alone, along with other inputs, play an important role in boosting production to a desired level, thus quality seeds, association with appropriate type of soil need to be prioritized. The quality of seeds regulates the production quantum from land cultivated with HYV paddy seeds. It does not require additional or special skill on part of farmers to cultivate his paddy land to be cultivated with HYV. But, of course, farmers must have a detail knowledge of special features/characteristics and nature of a particular type of HYV, he would desire to grow in his cultivated land. Hence to create confidence over a specific HYV variety ,also its adaptability in a particular soil, there is a chain of performances to be observed very carefully and sincerely. It is assessed that approximately 45 % increase in the crop production could be achieved when cultivated with HYV seeds.
HYV seeds must be tested, well ahead of time of planting by a recognized seed testing authority, through a series of recommended seed testing procedure, so as to ascertain its original characters.
Success or failure of HYV variety is generally governed by soil moisture content in the soil. HYV paddy varieties produce more yields in unit area when irrigation facility is assured. On the other hand soil moisture whether it is scanty or excess in quantity, in both cases such condition is not favorable or thus acceptable to HYV rice cultivation. When moisture is scanty, efficiency of usages of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides decline, because these components cannot be absorbed adequately as per necessity of the variety and in many cases their application affects adversely to the rice cultivation cultivated under such conditions. On the other hand under the influence of excessive moisture more specifically resulted from flood as in the case of Brahmaputra and Barak valley in Assam, application of chemical fertilizer, insecticides and pesticides resulting in as waste after flood. Irrigation is considered to be the single most regulating factor toward ascending or descending order of productivity of rice cultivated with HYV variety.
To avoid a big loss on part of farmers, one should be cautious when HYV seed are selected for the first time. A new variety in no way be advocated to cultivate covering a large area of agricultural land ,instead it is advisable for conducting some demonstration (trial ) plots in a particular locality to ascertain the adaptability of a new variety of HYV of paddy variety in a specific area.
At the beginning, new area of agricultural field proposed for cultivation with new HYV is identified on the basis of the general characteristic of the said variety; also some progressive as well as devoted farmers should be selected for implementing demonstration plots of the new variety in their crop fields. Besides a number of co farmers may also be allowed to involve in the process of conducting the demonstration.
If such trials become successful with good results then participant co-farmers will automatically motivated towards the variety and in the next crop season they would adopt the said HYV in their crop field with confidence.
This is the simple way to make the new HYV variety of paddy seed to be popularized amongst farmers of a locality. For these reasons it necessitates to train up participant farmers about different characteristics, technical know-how of cultivation practices, various requirements of nutrients, irrigation etc. of the newly introduced variety.
Subsequently demonstration plots are to be organized adopting new variety with a complete supervision of plots by agricultural scientists, experts, and specialist and extension workers. A day to day monitoring, observation and recording of each activity and problem, if any, to be taken into consideration. After the end of the whole process an evaluation process is to be performed by all concern. When a positive results coming out of the cultivation of the HYV, it will certainly create in the mind of farmers, credibility and faith on the new variety by doing practically on his own. Then only the new variety is allowed to spread in various agricultural lands in an extensive way.